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The RWSSP-WN Briefs provide synopsis of various studies, field notes and data that may or may not have been published in other reports and studies related to the project.


November 29, 2016


RWSSP-WN Brief 11-2016 presents a study conducted in Baluhawa VDC in Kapilvastu district. The comprehensive study covered all 764 households of the VDC. The purpose of the study was two-fold: to verify whether the VDC was truly ready to be declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) and to establish which households received subsidy from the VDC for the toilet construction, and if they did, what exactly was it and did it result in constructing and using the toilet? The study reveals interesting facts behind toilet construction subsidies and their impact on household latrine construction and use rate. Smart phones and KoBo Toolbox application were used in data collection which allows presenting the findings in a spatial form.


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 11-2016



November 29, 2016


In 2015, Silautiya Ward 1 was included in a large study conducted by RWSSP-WN II to verify whether the areas declared as Open Defecation Free (ODF) truly are ODF. Out of the study locations, Silautiya Ward 1 was revisited again exactly 12 months after the first data collection visit to explore the changes the project had contributed to in the Ward. RWSSP-WN Brief 10-2016 presents the results of this study - the objective is to explore the changes that took place in the Ward before its ODF declaration as well as success factors that influenced the change. The data collection was conducted using smart phones and KoBo Toolbox application which allows mapping the findings for future reference. The study contributes to further improvement of approaches and tools for sanitation promotion. 


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 10-2016



October 17, 2016


RWSSP-WN Brief 9-2016 presents the springshed approach that is used to revive springs that are in depleting condition. The brief is based on a series of trainings organized by RWSSP-WN in 2016. Many springs in the Nepal mid-hills are declining, causing more and more hardship for the people. There are various relatively simple technologies for improving recharge of groundwater, but planning for recharge calls for understanding of sub-surface water flows and behaviour of springs. This brief outlines the seven-step methodology for assessing the spring recharge area (or the springshed) and for planning recharge structures considering the features of the recharge area.  


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 9-2016



October  17, 2016


RWSSP-WN Brief 8-2016 summarizes the projects's annual progress for Fiscal Year 3 (July 2015/ July 2016). Eleven out of fourteen RWSSP-WN II working districts have reached Open Defeacation Free status since 2012; the total population with access to sanitation is 2,7 million. Over 84,000 people have gained access to improved water supply. Sustainability of 397 rural water supply projects has been improved through rolling out various Post-Construction support activities, such as VDC and District Post-Construction workshops and Water Safety Planning.   


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 8-2016

RWSSP-WN BRIEF 7-2016 (update 2017)


Updated November 27, 2017


RWSSP-WN Brief 7-2016 provides step-by-step clarity into the procurement process. The brief is based on the RWSSP-WN II Project WASH Implementation Guideline (2016) and Step-By-Step Guidelines (2015), and is supported by the Country Agreement between the governments of Nepal and Finland for the implementation of RWSSP-WN II. Water Users and Sanitation Committee has three options for procurement: 1) Direct Purchase, 2) Competitive Quotation and 3) Tendering Process. The brief covers the options 1 and 2.  


Click here for the updated RWSSP-WN Brief 7-2016 updated in 2017 in Nepali

Click here for the English version of the updated Brief 7-2017



February 04, 2016


RWSSP-WN Brief 6-2016 outlines the top-line findings whether the areas declared as Open Defecation Free (ODF) truly are open defecation free. During the data collection two districts, Gulmi and Nawalparasi, declared District ODF. The study was made in 19 VDCs and 4 municipalities, in 27 Wards of which 23 Wards were declared as ODF, in Western Nepal. The total sample included 5,517 household observations.


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 6-2016



February 03, 2016


RWSSP-WN Brief 5-2016 summarizes the findings of a source yield study completed in 2015 by RWSSP-WN II. The study 'Analysis and mapping of climate and source yield in Tanahun district' compared source yield changes and climatic changes between years 2004 and 2014. Altogether 2,387 water sources were analyzed in the study.  The brief outlines the findings on source yield changes, climatic changes and recommendations to tackle the issue of declining water sources. 


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 5-2016



February 03, 2016


RWSSP-WN Brief 4-2016 gives an overview of the WSP++ concept promoted by RWSSP-WN II.  Water safety is not only about safe quality, but also water quantity and reliability of service. WSP++ integrates activities that aim at ensuring good water quality as well as  maintenance activities necessary for scheme functionality in one plan. The brief presents lessons learnt from WSP++ process so far, concerning the WSP++ preparation process and related capacities and attitudes of WUSC and users. It also sets an example on how Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction can be mainstreamed in WSP++. 


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 4-2016



January 13, 2016


RWSSP-WN Brief 3-2016 entry point is that Water Users and Sanitation Committees (WUSCs) need to be able to collect some cash for their operation and maintenance (O&M) needs. This cash needs to keep its value, stay safe and be available when it is needed. It now appears that WUSCs still keep their funds in idle bank accounts without interest. This brief outlines findings regarding water tariff collection, WUSCs financial management practices and O&M fund management, and makes recommendations with regards to the local cooperatives.


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 3-2016



January 8, 2016


RWSSP-WN Brief 2-2016 re-visits the findings from the sanitation related behaviour change communications (BCC) study made in 2015 in three Tarai districts. In 2016 the study will be focusing in the post-ODF context, yet, the concerns raised in this Brief remain valid. Without true ODF behaviour, Total Sanitation cannot be reached. The leading questions were: have our BCC strategy and activities been effectively implemented? To what extent our BCC strategy, messages, and activities respond to the drivers of and barriers to improving household sanitation behaviours? The study covered the three Tarai districts, and focused on three key behaviours of interest: 1) Ending open defecation, 2) Toilet investment and construction; and 3) Consistent toilet use.


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 2


January 7, 2016


RWSSP-WN Brief 1-2016 focuses on the public, institutional and school sanitation in Western and Mid-Western Nepal. The study covered total 316 sanitation facilities constructed 2009-2013 in RWSSP-WN Phase I, each re-visited again in 2014 as Phase II baseline. The questions included: How to ensure that public, institutional and school toilets are accessible to all, that they are child-gender-differently-able friendly? What have we learned from the past? What are we proposing for the future? What to recommend for the Institutional Management Committees of these facilities?


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief 1-2016

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