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RWSSP-WN Phase II studies, presentations and individual works


This page shares RWSSP-WN Phase II related studies and presentations made by short term consultants, students and individual staff members. We share these studies to communicate the results and learnings of various studies and presentations made in RWSSP-WN Phase II. Some sources cited in these papers may be informal documents and internal unpublished data that are not readily available.


We do not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in these works. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of the RWSSP-WN Phase II or company that it represents.


RWSSP-WN and its local government stakeholders are also continously conducting quantitative surveys using mobile phones. These studies aim to establish baselines and verify results, and provide evidence for developing new approaches and tools for ensuring better quality programmes and eventually sustainable WASH Serivces.


These findgins are presented as six-pager RWSSP-WN Bries, see RWSSP-WN Briefs 2016

RWSSP-WN Briefs 2017

RWSSP-WN Briefs 2018.


See also how our research has been presented in the conferences and other global forums (such as international peer review articles).


Human Rights and Technology. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” by the United Nations-mandated University for Peace

RWSSP-WN II & RVWRMP contribution by Pamela White, Sanna-Leena Rautanen & Pallab Raj Nepal, 2o17


The book on “ is a compilation of studies. The first article under "Capacity Building, Technology Transfer and Development" titled “Operationalising the right to water and sanitation and gender equality via appropriate technology in rural Nepal” (pages 217-239) was authored by Pamela White, Sanna-Leena Rautanen, and Pallab Raj Nepal. It focuses on the capacity-building among local authorities, rural communities, and donors. It presents RWSSP-WN and RVWRMP, discussing how the project implementation is contributing with the achievement of SDG 6.


Click here for the book.


A Comparative Assessment between Rural Drinking water Supply and Sanitation Schemes that Do or Do Not Implement Water Safety Plan ++ to Ensure Sustainable Water Services

Min Basnet, Ocotober 2018


This study was submitted to Program of Open Studies – Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development [POS-WASH] by Kathmandu University and eawag. The study was carried out in Harinas Rural Municipality of Syangja district. The study found, among others, that the schemes with WSP++ had more sustainable institutional setting and the users of schemes with WSP++ seemed to have better knowledge on water-borne disease than users of schemes without WSP++ but unfortunately this had not led to the practice of household level water treatment.


Click here for the report:

Systematic Approach to Behaviour Change in Sanitation in Kapilvastu district, Nepal

Sanna-Leena Rautanen with contributions from Kalpana Dishwa & Bipin Poudel & the  team from the Project Support Unit who helped to develop the questions, December 26, 2017


This report summarises the findings from the formative research conducted in Kapilvastu district in Nepal in September 2017. Kapilvastu is one of the last three RWSSP-WN working districts yet to be declared Open Defecation Free. At the same time there are concerns that even in those areas already declared, not all are using the latrines.


Click here for the report: Systematic Approach to Behaviour Change in Sanitation in Kapilvastu district, Nepal


Click here for the RWSSP-WN Brief-1 2018 that summarizes the report in six pages.


ODF revisited – Sanitation in 5,506 Households in Western Nepal

Sanna-Leena Rautanen, Kalpana Dishwa & Jari Laukka, June 2o16


Is Open Defecation Free (ODF) truly open defecation free? The study was made in 19 VDCs and 4 municipalities, in 27 Wards of which 23 Wards were declared as ODF, in Nawalparasi, Rupandehi, Kapilvastu and Gulmi districts in Western Nepal. During the study period Nawalparasi and Gulmi districts were declared ODF. Out of 5,506 households, 5,009 are located in 23 ODF wards and 497 located in 4 non-ODF wards. The non-ODF wards were selected for a comparison.


Click here for the report: ODF revisited – Sanitation in 5,506 Households in Western Nepal


Cooperative as an Option for WUSCs’ Operation and Maintenance Fund 

Sunita Sharma, December 2015

The leading question for this study was whether the Project should advice Water Users and Sanitation Committees (WUSCs) to open account for their Operation and Maintenance Fund in the local cooperatives rather than keeping the funds in their bank accounts that were used during the scheme implementation. It covered 3 districts and 32 schemes.


Click here for the main study report

Towards Reliable Operation & Maintenance Fund Management of Drinking Water Schemes 

Sunita Sharma, March 2016

This study took forward the recommendations made with regards to using cooperatives as an option for Water Users and Sanitation Committees (WUSCs). It covers 84 drinking water supply schemes in eight districts, all WUSCs with some years of operational experience. These findings were collected during the district-wide post-construction workshops.

Click here for the main study report (2016)
Click here for the Post-Construction Guidelines (2015)

Strengthening Behavior Change Communication in RWSSP-WN Phase II

Lene Gerwel-Jensen & Bipin Poudel, December 2014


The purpose of this study was to assess and provide recommendations which can help strengthen the effectiveness of the RWSSP-WN II’s behavior change communication (BCC) activities aimed at improving sanitation practices and toilet access in three Western Terai districts (Kapilvastu, Nawalparasi, and Rupandehi districts). 


Click here for the report: Strengthening Behavior Change Communication in RWSSP-WN Phase II

Click here for the presentation made in Kathmandu 5.12.2014 

Click here for thre RWSSP-WN Brief 2-2016

Behavior Change Communications: Terai BCC Action Plan & Total Sanitation BCC in the Hills

Lene Gerwel-Jensen


This the  time the focus of the review was two-fold:
1. To follow up on the recommendations and action plan made when the BCC strategies and related triggering tools were reviewed for sanitation in the Terai districts in 2014, and
2. To review BCC aimed at bringing about Total Sanitation in the hill districts and recommend how it may be improved

Click here for the report: BCC Review: 2015 Terai BCC Action Plan Status & Total Sanitation BCC in the Hills
Click here for the presentation made in Kathmandu 6.2.2016, including presentation by Kalpana Dishwa on sanitation findings

Analysis & Mapping of Climate and Source Yield in Tanahun District

Dr Binod Shakya, March 2015


In 2004 RWSSSP III measured 3,320 water sources in Tanahun district. In 2014 RWSSP-WN II repeated the source measurement again. Total 4,223 sources were measured, including one additional VDC and Byas municipality. The study shows dramatic changes over the ten years accross one district.


Click here for the main study report

Click here for the presentation made at the 6th National Groundwater Symposium, 19 March 2015, Kathmandu

Post-Disaster Needs Assessment by RWSSP-WN II & RVWRMP II teams

Narayan Wagle, Bashu Pandey, Amol Ruphakheti RWSSP-WN II with RVWRMP team & the drivers


PDNA field visit team observed 10 damage reported schemes (5 in Dhading, 3 in Gorkha and 2 in Lamjung), 7 focus group discussion with females, Assessment review in all three districts, Stakeholders meeting in Dhading and Lamjung and DWASHCC meeting in Gorkha, Observed DDRC meeting in Dhading. Shelter observed in Dhadingbesi of Dhading and Aarughat of Gorkha (23.5.-28.5.2015) Full report was submitted to the Embassy of Finland and the WASH Cluster.  


Click here for the presentation that summarizes the findings.

Empowerment of Rural Women through drinking water projects - A case study of drinking water projects in Sakhar VDC of Syangja

Min Basnet, District WASH Adviser for Syangja district


This study was submitted to Faculty of Humanities and social Sciences, Department of Rural Development, Patan Multiple Campus (TU), in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Master Degree in Rural Development. It covered total 119 households that benefited from RWSSP-WN II supported water supply schemes. The objectives were three-fold:
1. to analyze the roles of women in water projects
2. to assess the ways the time saved is bringing about changes in the lives of the local women in terms of their triple roles
3. to evaluate the way the water supply component of the intervention helped women in terms of their welfare, access, consent, participation and control


Click here for the Masters Thesis.

Post Open Defecation Free Zone Assessment of Gugauli Village Development Committee, Kapilvastu towards achieving Total Sanitation

Bashu Pandey, District WASH Adviser for Tanahun district, previously District WASH Advisor in Kapilvastu district


This study was submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Interdisciplinary Water Resources Management (iWRM) awarded by Pokhara University.

It aimed to assess and evaluate the present Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) condition of Gugauli VDC, Kapilvastu District, based on the WASH service level to achieve total sanitation. The study was particularly focused on the post ODF scenario.  It covered 117 households and 11 Focus Group Discussions.


Click here for the Masters Thesis.

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