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Sanitation, Hygiene and RWSSP-WN II


RWSSP-WN II’s purpose was to end open defecation in all working districts in a sustainable way, achieving a more healthy and liveable environment. This means that all 14 districts, locality by locality, are declared and will remain Open Defecation Free (ODF). Sanitation for all is in line with post-2015 thinking and human rights based approaches.


RWSSP-WN Phase II aimed to achieve total sanitation and hygiene behaviour change in the target communities. To achieve this goal, the project developed a two-stage strategy where behaviour change communication was the key tool.

Community driven sanitation behavior change

The first target is to declare Open Defecation Free zones, Ward by Ward, Municipality by Municipality, District by District, and eventually zone-by-zone. The household sanitation behaviour change focuses on stopping open defecation. Behaviour change is achieved via the so-called ‘trigger-based’ approach, which is applied at both the community and individual level.

Sanitation in schools, public places and institutions

ODF is only possible if schools are included and sanitation in critical public and institutional locations is addressed. RWSSP-WN II supports school, institutional and public toilet construction.

Menstruation & WASH
Total behaviour change in sanitation and hygiene 

Following ODF declaration, the second stage of behaviour change begins. This stage focuses on promoting hygiene and sanitation behaviour beyond toilet use. The main strategy is to contribute to targeted changes through consultations and negotiations at the household level using the Small Doable Actions approach.

Towards sustainable sanitation and hygiene

After having declared ODF, each district and each of their Municipalities shall develop a post-ODF Strategy to ensure that the ODF status can be maintained and that the communities move gradually towards total sanitation.

There are many taboos surrounding menstruation. In Nepal, menstruating women and girls are sometimes forbidden to use water and/or sanitation facilities. RWSSP-WN has an objective to ensure everyone's right to access to water, sanitation and hygiene - including menstruating women and girls.

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